A Complete Guide on Quantitative Research with Examples

quantitative research

Quantitative data is measured using numbers. This type of data is collected through empirical observation. People who collect this information do so because they want to measure variables or test hypotheses for their research projects.

When doing a quantitative study, it is important to remember that the results are more reliable than qualitative research. However, there are still some steps you need to take to make sure you get the most accurate results possible.

We know how much work it takes to find good data to support our arguments. In this blog post, we're going to provide a complete guide on how to do quantitative research.

Plus, with the examples given here, you can get started instantly.

Quantitative Research Definition

What is quantitative research?

Quantitative research is a way of investigating the world systematically by gathering data that can be measured. This type of research can be divided into two categories:

  • Informative research gathers data to help us understand something we don't know.
  • Expressive research gathers data to help us communicate our ideas and feelings.

People are trying to understand their subject matter in different ways. You can use things like online polls and questionnaires to do this. But it's important to remember that the future is always uncertain. We can use this knowledge to make smart decisions that will help us succeed.

The results from this research method are logical and unbiased. The data collection process goes beyond a single population to represent an entire group, making the results more accurate!

What are the tools used in quantitative research?

There are many different ways to collect data. Questionnaires, participant observations, focus groups, and interviews are some of the most common methods. Each method has its own strengths and weaknesses.

Quantitative Research Characteristics

Here are some characteristics of quantitative research.

  • Extensive Sample - This study uses a large number of people, which means the findings will most accurately represent what most people think.

  • Inclusive Results - The results of this experiment could be applied to a lot of people.

  • Closed-ended Questions - When conducting research, it is important to ask questions that will produce objective responses. Questions should allow respondents to choose between 'Yes', 'No', or 'don't know’ options.

  • Methodical Tools - Methodical tools help you collect more accurate and detailed information. This can be done through surveys or polls.

  • Previous Research - Before you start your experiment, you should always do thorough research and study the results of previous experiments. This will help you figure out what might happen during your experiment and how to avoid any problems.

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Types of Quantitative Research Methods

‘What are the four types of quantitative research?’

There are four types of quantitative research. They are all important to scientists.

When it comes to collecting data, the most common and useful way to do so is by using the primary method. This involves surveys or experiments that collect information from a representative sample of people.

The quantitative research design types are listed below.

  1. 1. Survey Research

    Creating online surveys is a great way for businesses to get feedback from customers. These surveys allow open feedback from participants.

    Here are the most common types of surveys listed.

    • Cross-Sectional Survey - A cross-sectional survey is a study that looks at a specific group of people at one point in time. The researcher measures several things. The people in the study have similarities in all ways except the ones chosen by the researcher.

      This research is used by industries like retail, small-scale businesses, and healthcare industries to understand their customers better.

    • Longitudinal Survey - A longitudinal study is a type of study that observes people over a long period of time in order to see how their behavior changes. This type of study can take days or months to complete, and it can give researchers a lot of valuable information about the subjects being studied.

  2. 2. Experimental Research

    Scientists often do research to prove or disprove theories. This is called ‘true experimentation,’ and it usually involves theories about the natural world and human behavior.

  3. 3. Causal-comparative Research

    This type of research is used to study the cause and effect between different things. Researchers use it to see how things change when something else changes. This research is also called quasi-experimental research.

  4. 4. Correlational Research

    Correlational research is a type of study that looks at the relationship between two things. These entities must have some sort of impact on each other. Different things can be compared to see if there is a connection between them.

    This can be positive or negative. This kind of content analysis involves a lot of math and statistics. You need to collect data by interviewing people in depth.

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Types of Data Collection Methodologies

You should choose the data collection method that is best for the task after you have determined the research type.

For example, polling and sampling are both ways to gather information, but they have different accuracy levels so you need to be careful in choosing which one to use.

Sampling Data Collection Method

There are two types of sampling methods used in quantitative research: probability sampling and non-probability sampling.

  1. 1. Probability Sampling

    Probability sampling is a way of collecting data by selecting a few people from the general population at random. These people can be from any group in the population, and there are no selection criteria involved in choosing them.

    Probability sampling is further classified as follows.

    • Simple Random Sampling - In simple random sampling, participants are randomly chosen from a large population. This method is conducted so that any bias can be avoided. This way, all parts of society have an equal chance to contribute their thoughts and opinions.
    • Systematic Sampling - Systematic sampling is a way to choose people from a population so that you can get an idea of what life is like for everyone. The sampling rates will be calculated based on the number of people you want to sample, which can be between 100 and 1 million!
    • Cluster Sampling - Cluster sampling is a way of dividing people into different groups that represent different areas and demographics.
    • Stratified Random Sampling - Stratified Random Sampling is a way to make sure that the people in your study represent all of society. The study is done by dividing people into different groups, or "strata."
  2. 2. Nonprobability Sampling

    A well-designed study is the best way to get data. This type of research makes sure that only specific people are chosen. The criteria for this survey have been set out beforehand, so there are no surprises.

    • Convenience Sampling - This type of sampling is easy to do because you just follow the lead of the people you are sampling from. There are no set guidelines or rules for how to do this, so it is more flexible than other types of sampling.

    • Judgemental Sampling - The researcher's skills, experience, and preference will determine the type of samples used in a study.

    • Quota Sampling - Quota sampling is when researchers identify the specific elements in a content likely to appeal most and then make those available for everyone. This ensures that everyone has an equal chance of being selected if they want it.

    • Consecutive Sampling - It is when the researcher chooses one specific group to study. They test different populations to figure out what is happening in each category.

    • Snowball Sampling - It is a way to collect data from a specific group of people that is difficult for researchers to reach.

Survey and Polls Data Collection Method

To get data for a research project, it is important to survey and poll a selected group of people. This gives you information about what is happening with the people in your study group.

Researchers use different scales to measure how people answer questions. These scales are called nominal, interval, ordinal, and ratio scales. They are all important in understanding responses!

Close-ended questions are helpful in rating surveys so that the data collected can be accurately analyzed. You should also respond with rating scales to ensure the data is helpful.

There are several different ways to survey your customers.

Below is information on how some companies get feedback from their target audience.

  • Social Distribution - You can use social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter to collect more responses for your survey.

  • Email - Email management software is one of the most common ways when you want to distribute your survey.

  • SMS Survey - With SMS surveys, you can collect data more easily than before.

  • Buying the Respondents - This survey distribution method uses respondents' knowledge to collect the most accurate data possible.

  • QR code - Printed on business cards or magazines, a survey can be the perfect way to get feedback from your audience.

  • Embedding the Survey on a Website - You can increase your response rate with the survey by linking it to a website. Customers are more likely to participate in this interactive process and provide you with valuable feedback, which is perfect for collecting!

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Quantitative Research Data Analysis Techniques

When analyzing data, it is important that the results are relevant and related to your objective. This will help you figure out what the data means and how it can help you meet your goals.

The following methods can be used for statistical analysis:

  • SWOT Analysis - It is an acronym that stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. Businesses use this kind of analysis to evaluate their performance and develop appropriate strategies.
  • Conjoint Analysis - The analysis of this kind helps businesses to identify how customers make difficult purchasing decisions. By using advanced analytics, companies can be more understanding and knowledgeable about their target audience's preferences.
  • Cross-tabulation - A preliminary statistical analysis is an important part of the research process. This helps you understand patterns, trends, and relationships between various factors.
  • Turf Analysis - It stands for Totally Unduplicated Reach and Frequency Analysis. It allows for the collection and analysis of data, responding from a chosen or favored target group.

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Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research

There are two main types of research: quantitative and qualitative. They are mostly used in subjects that have a lot of detailed research, so what distinguishes them from each other? A comparison between the two is provided below.

Quantitative research is a type of research that uses data to answer specific questions. Qualitative research, on the other hand, uses words and pictures to answer questions about people's feelings and experiences.

Here is a table that shows the difference between quantitative and qualitative data collection methods in a clear way.

Quantitative Research vs. Qualitative Research
Quantitative Research Research Perspective Qualitative Research
Test the hypothesis and analyze research questions, and aspects Research Objective Qualitative data analysis look for new ideas
Testing and analyzing Research Method Observation and interpretation of the results
Structured Data Collection Method Unstructured
Uninvolved and the results are all-inclusive Researcher Involvement Involved, and the results are detailed in qualitative study
Samples are large, and results are generalized Sampling Samples are small and in their natural setting

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Benefits of Quantitative Research

The benefits of quantitative research are many, and researchers can benefit in ways that they may not have even considered.

Here's a list of some strengths:

  • Straightforward Analysis - With a straightforward analysis, you can easily determine which statistical tests are appropriate. Eliminating any subjectivity in the data collection ensures that your findings will be accurate and easy to interpret.
  • Can Be Tested and Checked - The reliability of quantitative research is due to its careful experimental design. It allows for the replication of tests and results.

    You can reduce bias in your data by making sure that it's more objective and transparent than other types of studies.

  • Prestige - Completing complex data analysis is impressive and valuable because not everyone understands math or statistics.
  • Quantitative research has applications in all business areas, from picking stocks to evaluating portfolios. The association between prestige and value can be an incentive for your small businesses.

Researchers use quantitative research methods because they are easy to sample and collect data. Additionally, this type of study design is easily reproducible, meaning your findings can be replicated by other researchers.

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Drawbacks of Quantitative Research

Here are some limitations of quantitative research, a researcher should consider.

  • Difficulty Setting up a Research Model - Creating a research model is often a limitation for quantitative studies.

    This is because errors that are made during the execution or design of the study can invalidate all future results. If these errors are not fixed, the study will be useless.

    When you do research, the accuracy of your results depends on developing a hypothesis. It also depends on setting up the model for collecting data correctly.

    Any errors in setup or bias can invalidate all findings from this experiment.

  • False Emphasis on Numbers - When researchers focus on numbers alone, they can overlook important information. This can limit the success of their research. Researchers need to be aware of this and make sure to explore themes and relationships.
  • Can Be Misleading - People often think that quantitative research is more scientific than qualitative research, which is based on observations.
  • However, this isn't always the case! Both kinds of research can have subjective and flawed perspectives, which can bias your results.

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Quantitative Research Examples

The following are some examples of quantitative research to help you understand it better.

Sample Quantitative Research (PDF)

Sample Quantitative Research

Example of Quantitative Research for Students (PDF)

Example of Quantitative Research for Students

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